ESP8266 Node MCU Handling HTML web forms data

In this tutorial we are getting data from web browser using HTML forms. ESP8266 is configured as server. When user clicks on button or text box data that we want to read it in ESP8266 (NodeMCU). This is we are demonstrating in example. before moving to ESP8266, let’s understand basics of HTML forms.

ESP8266 receive data from user

What are HTML forms?

HTML Forms are one of the main points of interaction between a user and a web site  or ESP8266. They allow users to send data to the web site. Most of the time that data is sent to the web server, but the web page can also intercept it to use it on its own.

An HTML Form is made of one or more widgets. Those widgets can be text fields (single line or multiline), select boxes, buttons, checkboxes, or radio buttons. Most of the time those widgets are paired with a label that describes their purpose — properly implemented labels are able to clearly instruct both sighted and blind users on what to enter into a form input.

The main difference between a HTML form and a regular HTML document is that most of the time, the data collected by the form is sent to a ESP8266 web server. In that case, you need to set up a web server to receive and process the data. We are setting ESP8266 as web server.

The <form> Element

The HTML <form> element defines a form that is used to collect user input:

An HTML form contains form elements.

Form elements are different types of input elements, like text fields, checkboxes, radio buttons, submit buttons, and more.

The <input> Element

The <input> element is the most important form element.

The <input> element can be displayed in several ways, depending on the type attribute.

Here are some examples:

Type Description
<input type=”text”> Defines a one-line text input field
<input type=”radio”> Defines a radio button (for selecting one of many choices)
<input type=”submit”> Defines a submit button (for submitting the form)

The Action Attribute

The action attribute defines the action to be performed when the form is submitted.

Normally, the form data is sent to a web page on the server when the user clicks on the submit button.

In the example above, the form data is sent to a page on the server called “/action_page”. This page contains a server-side script that handles the form data:

<form action=”/action_page>

If the action attribute is omitted, the action is set to the current page.

The Method Attribute

The method attribute specifies the HTTP method (GET or POST) to be used when submitting the form data:

<form action=”/action_page” method=”get”>
or
<form action=”/action_page” method=”post”>

When to Use GET?

The default method when submitting form data is GET.

However, when GET is used, the submitted form data will be visible in the page address field:

/action_page?firstname=Mickey&lastname=Mouse

Notes on GET:

  • Appends form-data into the URL in name/value pairs
  • The length of a URL is limited (about 3000 characters)
  • Never use GET to send sensitive data! (will be visible in the URL)
  • Useful for form submissions where a user wants to bookmark the result
  • GET is better for non-secure data, like query strings in Google

When to Use POST?

Always use POST if the form data contains sensitive or personal information. The POST method does not display the submitted form data in the page address field.

Notes on POST:

  • POST has no size limitations, and can be used to send large amounts of data.
  • Form submissions with POST cannot be bookmarked

Step 1: Creating web form

Open notepad and create simple html web page. Test/open this html page in web browser to see results and do necessary adjustments, before uploading it to ESP8266.

Open web browser and test your web form

ESP8266 text box data
HTML Form

Step 2: Creating ESP8266 as Web Server

Basic details are covered below. For more details refer this post

Ref: https://circuits4you.com/2016/12/16/esp8266-web-server-html/

Step 3: Handling web form data

Step 1: Connect to WiFi

Step 2: Create web server on root

Root page request handler

Similarly we create form handler, form action is set to “action_page”

We can read the form data or user sent data through forms using server.arg.

String firstName = server.arg(“firstname”);

Complete code to handle web form data.

Enter your SSID and Password then upload the code to ESP8266

Step 4: Results and testing of received data

After uploading open serial monitor with 9600 baud rate. First you will see only IP address.

ESP8266 received Data

Enter the IP address in web browser to open the web page.

Click on submit button and observer the serial monitor

This way you can get the web form data.

FAQ

Q1. Is it possible to stay on same page after pressing button?

ANS: Yes it is possible using server.sendHeader. Add these lines at the bottom of action page handler function.

 server.sendHeader(“Location”, “/”);
  server.send(302, “text/plain”, “Updated– Press Back Button”);
Q2. How to get change of state or ADC data or processed data back to web page after form submit ?
ANS: To get data back to page you can replace part of webpage before sending to user, using string replace. This is given in above project iot-based-home-automation.
Q3. How to get real time updates from server ?
Q4. Is it possible to control ESP over internet ?
ANS: YES, using MQTT you can access your ESP. see this

Read More

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How to read ESP8266 ADC data and display it in web page without refresh? Read here

This is little advanced application uses javascript ajax to update and control LED.

How to upload ADC Sensor data to a real IoT Cloud Web Server? Read here

In this example we upload adc data to things speak server.

Create Advance Cool IoT Widgets Like analog dial shown below. Read more here

 

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